1.What causes fungus in the ear? What causes a fungal ear infection?
Earwax (cerumen) protects the lining of the ear from fungus so anything that reduces the amount of wax (such as sea water splashing into the ear canal and overuse of cotton buds) will allow a fungal infection to take hold. Eczema of the skin inside the ear can be another risk factor.

2.Is fungal ear infection serious?
Outlook. In general, otomycosis is not dangerous, and it is easily treated with antifungal treatments. Otomycosis can become chronic if someone does not respond to treatment or has a weakened immune system, diabetes mellitus, or a chronic skin condition, such as eczema.

3.How do I know if my ear infection is fungal or bacterial?
There are several symptoms to look out for, although you may not experience all of them: Itching more common symptom of fungal infections than bacterial ones. Discharge a thick fluid, most commonly yellow, though it can be grey, green, black or white. Redness especially in the outer part of the ear canal.

4.How long does it take to cure a fungal ear infection?
Treatment of otomycosis includes suction clearance of fungal mass, discontinuation of topical antibiotics and treatment with antifungal ear drops for two weeks. Ear should be kept dry for three weeks.

1.Is wax in the ear harmful?
Earwax is slightly acidic, and it has antibacterial properties. Without earwax, the ear canal would become dry, waterlogged, and prone to infection. However, when earwax accumulates or becomes hard, it can cause problems, including hearing loss.

2.How can you tell if you have wax buildup in your ears?
These are the most common symptoms of impacted earwax:
Hearing loss.
Sense of ear fullness.
Itching in the ear.
Ringing in the ears.

3.What causes excessive ear wax?
Using cotton swabs, bobby pins, or other objects in your ear canal can also push wax deeper, creating a blockage. You’re also more likely to have wax buildup if you frequently use earphones. They can inadvertently prevent earwax from coming out of the ear canals and cause blockages.

4.Should earwax be removed?
Ideally, no; your ear canals shouldn’t need cleaning. But if too much earwax builds up and starts to cause symptoms or it keeps your doctor from doing a proper ear exam, you might have something called cerumen impaction. This means earwax has completely filled your ear canal and it can happen in one or both ears.

1. What is Otosclerosis ?
Otosclerosis is a rare condition that causes hearing loss. It happens when a small bone in your middle ear — usually the one called the stapes — gets stuck in place. Most of the time, this happens when bone tissue in your middle ear grows around the stapes in a way it shouldn’t.Your stapes bone has to vibrate for you to hear well. When it can’t do that, sound can’t travel from your middle ear to your inner ear. That makes it hard for you to hear.

2. What is Stapedectomy surgery?
Through a surgery called stapedectomy, a surgeon removes all or part of the original stapes bone and replaces it with an artificial device. The result allows sound waves to be sent once again to the inner ear for hearing.

3. Is a Stapedectomy painful?
These bones help with hearing. This surgery is done when the tissue around the stapes hardens and prevents the stapes from working correctly. The doctor replaces the stapes with a man-made stapes, called a prosthesis. You may have some ear pain or a headache and be slightly dizzy for several days after the surgery.

4. What can you not do after a Stapedectomy?
No nose blowing for a minimum of two (2) weeks. Open mouth to sneeze for two (2) weeks. Do not stop a sneeze by squeezing your nose. No lifting, straining, bending, or stooping for two (2) weeks after surgery (the effort to get out of the recliner may cause the inner ear to leak).

5. What is the success rate of Stapedectomy?
Stapedectomy is successful in restoring hearing in more than 90 percent of cases, and the gain in hearing is usually permanent. In a small number of cases, there is no improvement in hearing.

6. How long is recovery from ear surgery?
Most people are able to go back to work or their normal routine in about 1 to 2 weeks. But if your job requires strenuous activity or heavy lifting, you may need to take 2 to 4 weeks off.

7. How long after a Stapedectomy Can you hear?
Your hearing may improve right away, but often it takes about 2 to 4 weeks to notice a difference. Hearing often continues to improve in the 2 months after surgery. While you are healing.

8. What is the difference between Stapedectomy and Stapedotomy?
Note: A limited opening/hole within the central footplate of the stapes (accomplished via laser or manually with a drill) is referred to as “stapedotomy.” Total or subtotal removal of the stapes footplate (usually accomplished manually) is referred to as “stapedectomy.”

9. How long does vertigo last after Stapedectomy?
Dizziness is a common case in the days following surgery on the stapes, however, it rarely lasts longer than a week.

10. How is otosclerosis diagnosed?
Otosclerosis is diagnosed using tests including:
Hearing tests a person with otosclerosis typically has a hearing loss that affects all frequencies (pitches). The hearing loss may be conductive or mixed in nature. CT scan to check for Bony labyrinth.

11. Is otosclerosis genetic?
The cause of otosclerosis is not fully understood, although research has shown that otosclerosis tends to run in families and may be hereditary, or passed down from parent to child. People who have a family history of otosclerosis are more likely to develop the disorder.

12. Does otosclerosis worsen over time?
Otosclerosis may worsen in ladies during pregnancy, it can cause mild to severe hearing loss, but it very rarely causes total deafness. Hearing usually gets worse gradually over months or a few years, and may continue to get worse if ignored and left untreated.

1.What is the meaning of Csom?
Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is the result of an initial episode of acute otitis media and is characterized by a persistent discharge from the middle ear through a tympanic perforation. It is an important cause of preventable hearing loss, particularly in the developing world.

2.What are the complications of otitis media?
Serious complications of acute otitis media (AOM) include mastoiditis, Mastoid abscess, Facial palsy, Labrynthytis, meningitis, brain abscesses, permanent sensorineural hearing loss, and death.

3. What is unsafe Csom?
Unsafe CSOM is characterized by an attic cholesteatoma or a posterosuperior cholesteatoma with a history of scanty foul-smelling ear discharge (at times blood stained) and deafness.

4. What happens if otitis media is left untreated?
An untreated infection can travel from the middle ear to the nearby parts of the head, including the brain. Although the hearing loss caused by otitis media is usually temporary, untreated otitis media may lead to permanent hearing impairment.

5.What is cholesteatoma?
A cholesteatoma is an abnormal collection of skin cells deep inside your ear. They’re rare but, if left untreated, they can damage the delicate structures inside your ear that are essential for hearing and balance. A cholesteatoma if untreated can also lead to extracranial and Intracranial complications .

6. How urgent is cholesteatoma surgery?
Although surgery is rarely urgent, once a cholesteatoma is found, surgical treatment is the only choice. Surgery usually involves a mastoidectomy to remove the disease from the bone, and tympanoplasty to repair the eardrum. The exact type of operation is determined by the stage of the disease at the time of surgery.

1.What does Tympanoplasty mean?
Tympanoplasty is a surgery to repair the eardrum. The eardrum is a thin layer of tissue that vibrates in response to sound.
2.What is the difference between Myringoplasty and tympanoplasty?
Myringoplasty refers to grafting of the tympanic membrane without inspection of the ossicular chain.
Tympanoplasty entails grafting of the tympanic membrane with inspection of ossicular chain with/without reconstruction of the middle ear hearing mechanism.
3.What are the 3 ossicles?
Behind the eardrum are the tympanic cavities, which contain the three auditory ossicles: the malleus, incus, and stapes.
4.Can ossicles be replaced?
The surgery is typically performed through the ear canal. The non-functioning ossicle (bone) is removed and replaced with an artificial implant.
5. What is Ossicular reconstruction?
Tympanoplasty with ossicular chain reconstruction is a procedure to re-establish the connection between the eardrum and the inner ear through a prosthesis or reconstructed hearing bones. The main goal of this is to improve conductive hearing loss.
6. What is middle ear reconstruction surgery?
Ossicular chain reconstruction (also called middle ear bone surgery) can improve conductive hearing. In some cases, all three middle ear bones are replaced. During surgery, you will be given local anesthesia with sedation. Or you may receive general anesthesia.
7. What is a Ossiculoplasty?
Ossiculoplasty is the reconstruction of the middle ear ossicular chain which has been disrupted or destroyed, by the use of some interpositioned devices which helps in regaining the original mechanics of the ossicular chain to transfer the sound energy to the inner ear.
8. What is a Tympanomastoidectomy?
A tympanomastoidectomy is surgery to treat frequent ear infections that have damaged the eardrum and tissue in and near the ear. The doctor removes the abnormal or infected tissue in the bony area behind the ear, called the mastoid. The doctor repairs the eardrum.
9.How long after tympanoplasty Can you swim?
In most cases, you may return to his or her regular activities within 1 or 2 days after surgery. There is no need to restrict regular activity. Vigorous exercise (such as swimming and running) should be avoided until you see your doctor after surgery (usually 3 weeks).

1. How does cholesteatoma develop?
A cholesteatoma is an abnormal, noncancerous skin growth that can develop in the middle section of your ear, behind the eardrum. It may be rarely by birth, but it’s most commonly caused by repeated middle ear infections. A cholesteatoma often develops as a cyst, or sac, that sheds layers of old skin. The discharge from the ear is with bad odour due to superadded infection.
2.What happens after a Mastoidectomy?
Complications of a mastoidectomy can include, sensorineural hearing loss, which is a type of inner ear hearing loss. dizziness or vertigo, which may persist for several days.Facial nerve paralysis or weakness, which is a rare complication caused by facial nerve injury.
3.Why do a Mastoidectomy?
A mastoidectomy is an operation to take away part of the bone from behind the ear. A mastoidectomy is done because of an infection or cholesteatoma that spreads to the mastoid bone. You will need an operation to remove the diseased part of the mastoid bone.

1.What Is Thyroid ?
The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland that sits low on the front of the neck. Your thyroid lies below your Adam’s apple, along the front of the windpipe. The thyroid has two side lobes, connected by a bridge (isthmus) in the middle. When the thyroid is its normal size, you can’t feel it.

2.What are the type or thyroid problems ?
Goiter – enlargement of the thyroid gland.
Hyperthyroidism – when your thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormones than your body needs.
Hypothyroidism – when your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormones.
Thyroid cancer.
Thyroid nodules – lumps in the thyroid gland.
Thyroiditis – swelling of the thyroid.
The two main types of thyroid disease are hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Both conditions can be caused by other diseases that impact the way the thyroid gland works. Conditions that can cause hypothyroidism include: Thyroiditis: This condition is an inflammation (swelling) of the thyroid gland.

3.What foods are bad for thyroid?
soy foods: tofu, tempeh, edamame, etc.
certain vegetables: cabbage, broccoli, kale, cauliflower, spinach, etc.
fruits and starchy plants: sweet potatoes, cassava, peaches, strawberries, etc.
nuts and seeds: millet, pine nuts, peanuts.

4. If you feel an enlarged thyroid?
You may feel the nodule rolling underneath your fingertips or see it move when you swallow. A goiter (swelling) can be found on one side of the thyroid or on both sides. If you find any lumps or swelling in this area, talk to your doctor.

5.What happens to your body when your thyroid is low?
Hypothyroidism is a common condition where the thyroid doesn’t create and release enough thyroid hormone into your bloodstream. This makes your metabolism slow down. Also called underactive thyroid, hypothyroidism can make you feel tired, gain weight and be unable to tolerate cold temperatures.

6.What is Hyperthyroidism ?
Hyperthyroidism Symptoms
Unintentional weight loss, even when your appetite and food intake stay the same or increase.
Rapid heartbeat (tachycardia) commonly more than 100 beats a minute.
Irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
Pounding of your heart (palpitations)
Increased appetite.
Nervousness, anxiety and irritability.

7.What are the warning signs of thyroid cancer?
A lump in the neck, sometimes growing quickly.
Swelling in the neck.
Pain in the front of the neck, sometimes going up to the ears.
Hoarseness or other voice changes that do not go away.
Trouble swallowing.
Trouble breathing.
A constant cough that is not due to a cold.

8.Who can get a Thyroid Cancer ?
For unclear reasons thyroid cancers (like almost all diseases of the thyroid) occur about 3 times more often in women than in men. Thyroid cancer can occur at any age, but the risk peaks earlier for women (who are most often in their 40s or 50s when diagnosed) than for men (who are usually in their 60s or 70s)

9.What happens if thyroid cancer is left untreated?
If neglected, any thyroid cancer may result in symptoms because of compression and/or infiltration of the cancer mass into the surrounding tissues, and the cancer may metastasize to lung and bone.

10.What are the investigations needed for thyroid cancers ?
People who have or may have thyroid cancer will get one or more of these tests.
Radioiodine scan.
Chest x-ray.
Computed tomography (CT) scan.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan.
Positron emission tomography (PET) scan.
Lab tests of biopsy (or other) samples.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

11. Is Thyroid cancer is curable?
Papillary and follicular thyroid cancers the most common types respond very well to treatments. Most thyroid cancers are highly curable.

12. How long is thyroid cancer treatment?
When used to treat thyroid cancer, radiation therapy is usually given as outpatient therapy, either in a hospital or clinic, 5 days a week for about 5 to 6 weeks.

13.How does underactive thyroid affect pregnancy?
Pregnancy complications

If an underactive thyroid is not treated during pregnancy, there’s a risk of problems occurring. These include: pre-eclampsia which can cause high blood pressure and fluid retention in the mother and growth problems in the baby and anaemia in the mother.

14.Does thyroid affect conceiving baby?
Undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction can make it difficult to conceive. It can also cause problems during pregnancy itself. Once the over- or under-active thyroid is under control, however, there is no reason why you should not have a successful pregnancy and a healthy baby.

1.What are the 3 salivary glands and their functions?
Most animals have three major pairs of salivary glands that differ in the type of secretion they produce:
Parotid glands produce a serous, watery secretion.
submaxillary (mandibular) glands produce a mixed serous and mucous secretion.
sublingual glands secrete a saliva that is predominantly mucous in character.

3.What are the symptoms of a blocked salivary gland?
Common symptoms of blocked salivary glands include:
a sore or painful lump under the tongue. pain or swelling below the jaw or ears. pain that increases when eating

4.How do you know if you have a salivary gland stone?
Salivary stones cause swelling, pain or both in the salivary gland. Symptoms get worse when the person is eating or anticipating eating. A dentist might notice symptom-free salivary stones on a person’s x-ray during routine exams. The symptoms can come and go over a period of weeks, or be persistent.

5.A superficial (or lateral) parotidectomy involves removing all of the gland superficial to the facial nerve, whereas a partial superficial parotidectomy involves removing only the portion of the gland surrounding a tumor or mass

6.What happens if parotid gland is removed?
Some patients notice that the skin in and around the ear sweats excessively after the parotid gland has been removed (gustatory sweating, Frey’s syndrome). The sweating is particularly noticeable around mealtime when the skin can also turn red and feel warm.

7.How serious is a parotid tumor?
There are many salivary glands in the lips, cheeks, mouth and throat. Tumors can occur in any of these glands, but the parotid glands are the most common location for salivary gland tumors. Most parotid tumors are noncancerous (benign), though some tumors can become cancerous.

8.What is submandibular gland excision?
Submandibular gland removal is surgery to take out a saliva gland below the lower jaw. The gland may have been removed because of infection, a tumour, or a blocked saliva duct. A saliva duct is a tube that carries saliva from the gland into the mouth.

9.What is submandibular gland mass?
Purpose: Tumors of the submandibular gland are rare, comprising less than 2% of head and neck neoplasia. Both benign and malignant lesions show a mild symptomatology, resulting in late presentation and in advanced stage of disease.

1.What causes voice hoarseness?
Hoarseness can be caused by a number of conditions. The most common cause of hoarseness is acute laryngitis which isinflammation of the vocal cords caused most often by an upper respiratory tract infection, and less commonly from overuse or misuse of the voice (such as from yelling or singing).

2.Why is my voice hoarse for months?
Causes of chronic laryngitis. Laryngeal symptoms such as cough, sore throat and hoarse voice are frequently caused by prolonged irritation of the larynx and vocal cords. If laryngitis persists for weeks or months, this can result in vocal cord strain and injuries and growths or polyps developing on the vocal cords.

3. Any Medication ?
Medications used in some cases include:
Antibiotics. In almost all cases of laryngitis, an antibiotic won’t do any good because the cause is usually viral. But if you have a bacterial infection, your doctor may recommend an antibiotic.
Corticosteroids. Sometimes, corticosteroids can help reduce vocal cord inflammation.

4.What are the early signs of larynx cancer?
The main symptoms of laryngeal cancer include:
a change in your voice, such as sounding hoarse.
pain when swallowing or difficulty swallowing.
a lump or swelling in your neck.
a long-lasting cough.
a persistent sore throat or earache.
in severe cases, difficulty breathing.

5.What causes larynx cancer?
Alcohol and tobacco are the 2 main things that can increase your risk of developing laryngeal cancer. They’re thought to contain chemicals that can damage the cells of the larynx. The more you drink or smoke, the higher your risk of developing laryngeal cancer.

6.How do they test for laryngeal cancer?
During a laryngoscopy, your doctor may use small instruments to remove a sample of cells from your larynx so it can be examined for signs of cancer. This is known as a biopsy. Alternatively, if you have a lump in your neck, a needle and syringe can be used to remove a tissue sample

7.What are the final stages of throat cancer?
As the last days of life approach, you may see the following signs and symptoms: Breathing may slow, sometimes with very long pauses between breaths. Noisy breathing, with congestion and gurgling or rattling sounds as the person becomes unable to clear fluids from the throat.

1.Do you need your tonsils and adenoids?
Your tonsils and adenoids are components of your immune system. They help trap pathogens that enter your nose and mouth. They often enlarge in response to irritation or an infection. If your tonsils or adenoids are frequently infected or causing other symptoms, you may need to have them removed.

2.What causes enlarged tonsils and adenoids?
Tonsils and adenoids can become enlarged for many different reasons, including exposure to viruses, bacteria, fungal, parasitic infections and cigarette smoke. Common viruses include: adenovirus.

3.What is the best age to have tonsils removed?
After your child reaches age 12-18 months, other tissues begin to take over the tonsils’ immune functions. Because they’re no longer required to help fight infection, the tonsils usually shrink over time. That’s why they can be safely removed during a procedure called a tonsillectomy.

4.Why is tonsil removal worse for adults?
Another reason adults have a tougher time is that the older you are, the harder it is for a surgeon to get your tonsils out, he said. Every time you have a sore throat some scar tissue builds up on the tonsils, and the more sore throats you have had, the more scar tissue will get in the way during the surgery.

5.What is the treatment for adenoid hypertrophy?
Treatment of Enlarged Adenoids?
If your child has minimal symptoms, no treatment is typically needed. Doctor may recommend a nasal spray to help reduce swelling and potentially an antibiotic if the infection is bacterial. Another treatment for more severe cases is an adenoidectomy.

6. Complications of Chronic enlargement of Adenoids.
Ongoing enlargement of the adenoids can also block the eustachian tube, which connects the ears to the nose and drains fluid from the middle ear. This blockage causes fluid to build up in the ear, which can lead to repeated ear infections and temporary hearing loss. Ongoing enlargement of the adenoids can also block the eustachian tube, which connects the ears to the nose and drains fluid from the middle ear. This blockage causes fluid to build up in the ear, which can lead to repeated ear infections and temporary hearing loss.